Author’s Guidelines


The CANADIAN WILDLIFE BIOLOGY & MANAGEMENT publishes scientific observations by amateur and professional naturalists, field biologists, wildlife managers, educators, conservationists and students. All research papers must be based on original datasets. Models and management solutions must have been field tested. Reviews are welcomed and can address any topic of wildlife biology and management.

Submission of Manuscripts

Review and Acceptance
Submit all manuscripts by e-mail to the Editor.
Manuscripts are double-blind peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the Editor. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board, who reserves the right to refuse any material for publication.
Manuscripts should be written in English, in a clear, concise, direct style. We encourage authors to have their paper reviewed by an English scholar before submission. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition, and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.

Covering letter

Papers are accepted for publication in the Journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. This must be stated in the covering letter. The covering letter must also contain an acknowledgment that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript. Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest. If tables or figures have been reproduced from another source, a letter from the copyright holder (usually the Publisher), stating authorization to reproduce the material, must be attached to the covering letter. If “in press” publications are being used as reference material, a letter from the publication editor/publisher stating that the publication has been accepted and is in press must be attached to the covering letter.

Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. Once submitted to the Journal, the authors will not withdraw their manuscript at any stage prior to publication.

Please submit the names of at least 3 potential referees and their email addresses. If accepted, the submitted paper may be published as an original research paper, a management paper, a review, a natural history observation, or a point to ponder (see descriptions below) The authors must indicate for which category they are submitting their paper. It is possible, however, that the Editor decides that the paper fits better in a category other than the one suggested by the authors.

Ethical Considerations

If animal handling has occurred, authors must state that the protocol for the research project has been approved by a suitably constituted Ethics Committee of the research institution or is conform with guidelines previously published in scientific journals or recognized organizations. In taxonomic papers, type specimens and type depositories must be clearly designated and indicated. Authors are recommended to deposit the name-bearing type material in internationally recognized institutions.

When the research is carried out in areas for which research permits are required (e.g. nature reserves), or when it deals with organisms for which collection or import/export permits are required (e.g. protected species), the authors must clearly detail obtaining these permits in the Acknowledgments section.


Use Microsoft Word (preferably recent version) only. All manuscripts should be double-spaced and include continuous line numbering. All pages should be numbered consecutively in the bottom right-hand corner, beginning with the title page. The top, bottom and side margins should be at least 30 mm.

Spelling: The Journal uses Canadian English spelling, e.g., behaviour not behavior.

Units: All measurements must be given in SI or SI-derived units. (

Abbreviations/Acronyms: Abbreviations should be used sparingly – only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation/acronym only.

Zoological nomenclature: All papers must conform to the latest edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Upon its first use in the title, abstract and text, the common name of a species should be followed by the scientific name (genus, species) in parentheses. For example: muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus). Do not capitalize the name of species.

First title page should contain:

The title of the paper. The title should be short, informative and contain the major key words. Do not use abbreviations in the title.

The full names of the authors.

The addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with the full postal and email addresses, and telephone numbers, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent. The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.

Second title page:
With the title of the manuscript but without any reference to authors and addresses.
Manuscript itself:

Abstract and key words – All articles must have an abstract that states the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references.
Three to five key words should be supplied below the abstract in alphabetical order.

Text – Articles may have headings that best communicate the content. The following subheadings are commonly used to divide the sections of the manuscript: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. Considering the nature of this Special Issue, it would be proper to include (after Discussion) a section on Management Considerations.

Give geographical locations as latitude/longitude in degrees/minutes, e.g., 54o07’N, 108 o25’W. Use a space between number and unit, e.g., 15 m (but: 15%). Use only the 24-h clock, e.g., 07h55, for times. Use numbers, do not spell them. Statistical testing is recommended in all research papers, but may not be required for reviews or management plans.

Acknowledgments – The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers may be included.

Literature Cited (see below for style) – Within the text, citation to unpublished information must provide the person’s full name, year, institutional affiliation (if any), and type of information, e.g., unpublished data, personal communication.

Figure legends – Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

Tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) – Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Type tables on a separate page with the legend above. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units ofmeasurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols (†, ‡, §, ¶) or letters (a, b, c), should be used; the symbols *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures, such as SD or SEM, should be identified in the headings.

Figures – All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures – they should be submitted in JPEG or TIFF format. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text. Figures should be no larger than a standard page, and should be high resolution (at least 300 d.p.i.). Line figures should be supplied as sharp, black and white graphs or diagrams, drawn professionally or with a computer graphics package. Lettering may be included in Arial, Calibri or Times New Roman 9 point. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

About the Authors – After Literature Cited, please include a brief biography and photograph of the authors. Please consult past issues of the Canadian Wildlife Biology & Management ( journal for examples.

Literature Cited – It may include unpublished information (grey literature; when possible, provide internet address where a copy can be ontained) and web documents. Cite literature in the text as follows: (Proulx 2006, 2008; Zielinski et al. 2004a, b), items in date sequence. Give titles of periodicals in full. Follow the style (pay attention to indents, comas and periods):


Proulx, G. 2006. Using forest inventory data to predict winter habitat use by fisher Martes
pennanti in British Columbia, Canada. Acta Theriologica 51: 275-282.

Proulx, G. 2009. Conserving American marten Martes americana winter habitat in sub-boreal spruce forests affected by mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae infestations and logging in British Columbia, Canada. Small Carnivore Conservation 41: 51-57.

Zielinski, W. J., R. L. Truex, G. A. Schmidt, F. V. Schlexer, K. N. Schmidt, and R. H. Barrett. 2004a. Home range characteristics of fishers in California. Journal of Mammalogy 85: 649–657.

Zielinski, W. J., R. L. Truex, G. A. Schmidt, F. V. Schlexer, K. N. Schmidt, and R. H. Barrett. 2004b. Resting habitat selection by fishers in California. Journal of Wildlife Management 68: 475–492.e
Books, Reports, and Theses:

Collins, D. P. 2003. Badger ecology on the Chapparal Wildlife Management Area, Texas. MSc thesis, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacodoches, Texas, USA.

Singleton, G. R., S. R. Belman, P. R. Brown, and B. Hardy, editors. 2010. Rodent outbreaks: Ecology and impacts. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Metro Manila, Phillipines.

Ternovsky, D. V. 1977. Biology of the Mustelidae. Nauka, Novosibirsk, USSR. (In Russian).
Zar, J.H. 1999. Biostatistical analysis. Fourth edition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey, USA.

Chapters in books and proceedings

Proulx, G. 2011. Field evidence of non-target and secondary poisoning by strychnine and chlorophacinone used to control Richardson’s ground squirrels in southwest Saskatchewan. Pages 128-134 in D. Danyluk, editor. Patterns of Change. Proceedings of the 9th Prairie Conservation and Endangered Species Conference, February 2010. Critical Wildlife Habitat Program, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Strickland, M.A., C.W. Douglas, M. Novak, and M.P. Hunziger. 1982. Fisher. Pages 586–598 in J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer, editors. Wild mammals of North America: Biology, management, economics. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Unpublished and Web Documents

Provincial Council of ADD Boards & Sustainable Production Branch. 2001. 2001 Saskatchewan “gopher” survey. Report of survey results to Provincial Council of ADD Boards, Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Trost, R. E., and T. A. Sanders. 2008. Pacific Flyway Data Book – waterfowl harvest and status, hunter participation and success in the Pacific Flyway and United States. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon, USA. Accessed 26 September 2009.

Cost & Offprints

Authors will be charged $ 125 for each 8-1/2 x 10” page or part thereof. Publication charges must be paid in full before the article is published online.

A free PDF offprint will be supplied to the corresponding author.

Submission Checklist

A cover letter explaining that the submitted manuscript was not published in a scientific journal, book or other. Please include a list of potential referees with email addresses.

A title page including all authors and their affiliations and email addresses.
Check the title and keywords of your study – Do they attract researchers in your field and more broadly?
An abstract of 250 words or less that effectively summarizes your study and engages other researchers.
Check that the manuscript follows the Author Guidelines.
Cross-check all references and check their formatting in the text and references section.
Ensure your manuscript is in Microsoft Word format.
All tables and figures are presented at the end of the text.
Check that only SI values have been used throughout the manuscript.